Thursday, September 15, 2016

History 5385: A Seminar on the History of Latin American Commodities

Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures, by Marcy Norton

Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures

Norton, Marcy Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures: A History of Tobacco and Chocolate in the Atlantic World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.
                Marcy Norton is an established historian of Atlantic History and Spanish History in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures: A History of Tobacco and Chocolate in the Atlantic World is the culmination of her studies and won the best book award from the Association for the Study of Food and Society. Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures seeks to clarify a history of tobacco and chocolate and reveals the repercussions the two New World commodities had in the European world. Norton discusses what it meant for Europeans to consume tobacco and chocolate when knowledge abounded that the two were enmeshed in nearly every aspect of pagan savages in the New World. Finally, Norton sheds light on how Europeans adapted tobacco and chocolate into their economy and lives. Europeans developed their own unique cultural meanings of tobacco and chocolate and would, with time, embrace the two goods.
            Norton begins by explaining the use and significance of tobacco and chocolate to the Native Americans in the New World. Aztec, Mayan, and other Mesoamerican groups were bound together in their common usage of tobacco and chocolate. Chocolate beans were used as a common form of currency throughout Central Mexico. Tobacco and chocolate were woven into rites that conveyed social differentiation based on bloodlines and battlefield skill. Also, tobacco and chocolate expressed ties that Mesoamerican peoples considered binding to divinity. In consuming tobacco and chocolate, humans could achieve corporeal states similar to those experienced by their gods. Tobacco and chocolate anchored, enriched, and defined many social and religious rituals. The two quintessentially American goods could be found involved in betrothals, homecomings, intermission after meals, as tributes to gods, childbirth, and many more Mesoamerican activities.
            The next step in the evolution of tobacco and chocolate as world commodities was the encounters Spanish conquistadors had with Mesoamericans who consumed the substances. While the initial encounters had no special significance, Norton contends that many conquistadors, such as Hernán Cortéz, wizened to the social importance placed in and around tobacco and chocolate. Another example is Galetto Cey, an Italian trader who had to rely on Native American guides who insisted on conducting a tobacco ceremony before beginning an expedition. In the context of diplomacy and need, Cortéz and Cey participated in chocolate rituals in order to get the assistance of Native Americans that was relied upon for Imperial purposes.
            Norton explains the stereotypes tobacco and chocolate would be known by, several lasting for centuries. Tobacco was associated with simple savagery and native depravity. There was a close association of tobacco and its smoke with the devil and sorcery. On the other hand, chocolate was associated with the highly evolved civilizations of Mexico. The beverage was considered a decadence. The recipes and the methods of preparation were looked at as art forms, with precise steps and ingredients. Even Spanish historian and writer Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés saw chocolate as acceptable for consumption because of its medicinal qualities.  
            The process of how tobacco and chocolate impacted and imprinted imperial Europe began as the Spanish overlaid colonial institutions onto existing social, political, and economic structures. Religious tributes involving tobacco and chocolate continued, political and ecclesiastical jurisdictions were built upon standing indigenous political units, and Catholic churches were constructed on top of demolished pagan temples. Norton asserts that tobacco and chocolate survived because the new Spanish regime was erected on top of the substratum of native society. Tobacco and chocolate became the link to past traditions and allowed their adaptation to new settings. Pre-colonial traditions could be remade to serve new rulers and new divinities.  
            Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures explains how European acculturation to native ways, especially the acquired tastes for tobacco and chocolate, led to the suffusion of tobacco and chocolate into mestizo society. Many who became aficionados of tobacco and chocolate in the New World maintained the habit when upon their return to Europe. Norton contends that very early on in Spanish Imperialization conquistadores recognized cacao as a valuable commodity. Cacao was an immediate colonial commodity because of its value as a long-distance trade good before Spanish conquest. Tobacco was not seen as a valuable colonial commodity until later.  
            Once tobacco and chocolate leapt across the Atlantic Ocean, Europeans struggled with how to reconcile the use of the two commodities. Could a European consume tobacco and chocolate without implicating themselves in native idolatry? Nicolás Monardes was the first university-trained doctor to systematically consider American materia medica. With respect to tobacco, his drawings and writings offer clear insight into the European debate over the beneficial uses of the herb, and the impressions that its use was linked to idolatry. For Monardes, tobacco used medically was properly European, and tobacco used for other purposes was not acceptably European. However, chocolate was received in Europe differently than tobacco. At times, chocolate was juxtaposed to other regional beverages and considered acceptable for consumption. Many writers attempted to excuse the use of chocolate.
            Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures documents the time period that tobacco and chocolate began to have a firm social and commercial foothold on the Iberian Peninsula. Norton argues that commodification of tobacco and chocolate was the result of the growing European demand for the goods. Tobacco entered through the wealthy and well-connected merchant class, along with the lower-class mariner community. Elite Spaniards were the earliest and most frequent buyers of chocolate. Clergy members, titled aristocrats, families of officials, and professionals all imported tobacco and chocolate. Similar to the cultural roles tobacco played in the New World, Europeans easily created social situations for people to consume tobacco. In the same way that tobacco was once sacred to the Indians, it also became sacred to Old World consumers. Sensory sensations, such as the practices, habits, and tastes of tobacco were maintained even across the Atlantic Ocean.   
            In no other place are the enduring legacies of tobacco and chocolate more pronounced than seventeenth-century art. Norton points to the Barcelona tile painting as evidence of the powerful rite of sociability surrounding the manufacture of chocolate and its consumption. In the painting, chocolate conveys sumptuous refinement and the nobility and high status of chocolate consumers. Also conveyed in the painting, chocolate portrays intimacy of an erotic nature. David Teniers the Younger’s painting, Peasants Smoking in an Inn (1640), illustrates the shared change in mood and consciousness that unifies the smokers depicted. An onlooker is seen on the periphery eagerly looking on to joining the other smokers’ altered states.   
            Tobacco and chocolate soon became fundamental staples of the Atlantic trade network. Spanish royal officials worked to monopolize tobacco, which mandated the procurement, processing, and sale of tobacco to be the exclusive right of the Spanish government. Through the use of leases within the royal tobacco monopoly, the commodities brought in substantial revenues and increased the importance and power of the Spanish state. Spain used its new trade leverage to expand its domain domestically. Norton argues that the fiscalization of tobacco and chocolate affected their cultural meanings. Instead of the medicine Monardes had envisioned, tobacco and chocolate became the first mass luxuries.
            Finally, Catholic Spain had to contend with the problems of tobacco and chocolate consumption during Catholic rituals. Would tobacco consumption interfere with communion? If used by holy people or in holy places, would chocolate be considered sacrilege? Through the Catholic Church’s reform program, tobacco was made to be seen as the same as all sins, no better and no worse. This validated the sacrament and reduced the threat of tobacco. Next, Catholics considered chocolate and its potential to violate an ecclesiastical fast. This particular issue was heavily debated among Spaniards of many professions. With no papal bull to direct Catholics, the pope laughed chocolate off as a strange Indian drink.
            Eventually, smoking tobacco became the dominant form of ingestion. Norton argues that tobacco smoking led to opium smoking. While Europeans connoted smoking tobacco with diabolically inspired idolators, Asian countries eschewed a friendliness towards smoking. Norton is also quick to point out that the social rites surrounding chocolate drinking inspired the use of tea and coffee. Mesoamerican tobacco and chocolate consumers would not recognize the world commodities that today we know as cigarettes and Hershey’s kisses.

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Gaines Chisholm Smith and Matilda Jane Davis marriage

location: Limestone County, Alabama
date: November 15, 1845

Sarah Turner McAdams Adrian

birth: October 4, 1825
death: January 21, 1866
location: Smith County, Texas


spouse: McAdams
spouse: John David German Adrian

marriage to John David German Adrian - 1857

1860 census


children with McAdams:

Lewis McAdams - 1845
Laura McAdams - 1851

children with John David German Adrian:

Buchanan Breckenridge Adrian  - 1857
Andrew Jackson Adrian - 1859

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

J D G Adrian and Winnie Dyer marriage

location: Carroll County, Georgia
date: October 28, 1834 Georgia, Marriage Records From Select Counties, 1828-1978 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2013.

J D G Adrian and Sarah McAdams marriage

location: Smith County, Texas
date: April 15, 1856
location: Smith County, Texas Texas, Marriage Collection, 1814-1909 and 1966-2011 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2005.

J D G Adrian - 1850 census

1850 census
location: Smith County, Texas
date: September 21, 1850

John D G Adrian  54  male  farmer  $2,000  Georgia
Winney Adrian  26  female  Kentucky
Flemin F Adrian  15  male  Alabama
Nancy L E Adrian  14  female  Alabama
Leaditha J Adrain  11  female  Alabama
California Adrian  2  female  Texas

Year: 1850; Census Place: My Subdivision, Smith, Texas; Roll: M432_915; Page: 47B; Image: 98

J D G Adrian - 1880 census

1880 census
location: Van Zandt County, Texas
date: June 28, 1880

Amanda Brewer  white  female  23  wife  keeping house
Mrs. Williams  white  female  50  hired  keeping house
J D G Adrian  white  male  65  hired  farmer

"United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch( : 14 July 2016), J D G Adrian in household of W J Brewer, Precinct 5, Van Zandt, Texas, United States; citing enumeration district ED 123, sheet 124D, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 1330; FHL microfilm 1,255,330.

John David German Adrian

birth: March 18, 1815
location: Franklin County, Georgia
death: September 29, 1887
location: Van Zandt County, Texas

father: Fleming Fowler Adrian

spouse: Winnie Dyer
spouse: Sarah Turner

marriage to Winnie Dyer - 1834

1850 census

marriage to Sarah McAdams - 1857

1860 census

1863 recruitment letter

1870 census

1880 census


children with : Winnie Dyer

Fleming Fowler Adrian - 1834
Nancy L E Adrian - 1836
Leditha J Adrian - 1839
California Adrian - 1848
John Adrian - 1851
King Adrian - 1853

children with Sarah Turner:

Buchanan Breckenridge Adrian  - 1857
Andrew Adrian - 159

Friday, September 9, 2016

Sarah Elizabeth Kelly Moorman


father: James Kelly
mother: Elizabeth

spouse: John Dee Moorman

1850 census

1860 census

1870 census

marriage to John Dee Moorman

1880 census


L R Morris - 1940 census

location: Hopkins County, Texas
date: April 8-9, 1940

L R Morris  head  male  white  68  married  Tennessee  farmer
Ida Morris  wife  female  white  45  married  Texas
Mozelle Morris  daughter  female  white  18  single  Texas
Billy M Morris  son  male  white  15  single  Texas 1940 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2012.

Tuesday, September 6, 2016


1.      Monty Gayle Shelton

2.      Edmond Gayle Shelton – November 13, 1935

3.      MacGrover/MacGruver “Mac” Shelton  April 17, 1891 – November 8, 1977

Kiowa Cemetery, Roger Mills County, Oklahoma

m. Elverda Jewel Yost

children:          1. Infant Daughter Shelton
                        2. Winford W Shelton
                        3. Goldie Pearl Shelton Spitzer Flynt
                        4. Danellda Margene Shelton Morain
                        5. Wanda Margene Shelton Linville Rowell
                        6. Edmond Gayle Shelton

4.      Amos Mack Shelton  April 28, 1850 – February 2, 1930
b. North Carolina

Cass Cemetery, Cass County, Texas

m. Sarah Blanton
m. N Ellen Calloway

children with Sarah Blanton: 1. Menard Maderson (Madison) Shelton

children with N Ellen Calloway:        1. Leila Shelton Abernathy
                                                            2. Effie Shelton Cook
                                                            3. Alpha J Shelton
                                                            4. Walker Pendleton Shelton                         
                                                            5. MacGrover/MacGruver “Mac” Shelton

5.      Spencer Shelton  December 31, 1818 – February 1, 1902
b. North Carolina

Shelton Rankin Cemetery, Hughes Springs, Cass County, Texas

m. Sarah Ann Morris
m. Catherine Morris

children with Sarah Ann Morris:        1. William Wesley Shelton
                                                            2. Benjamin Franklin Shelton

Children with Catherine Morris:         1. Amos Mack Shelton          
                                                            2. James Henry Shelton
                                                            3. Asbury Mood Shelton
                                                            4. George Rademy Shelton
                                                            5. Margaret Anna Shelton Womack
                                                            6. Nelson Shelton
                                                            7. Jefferson Davis Shelton
                                                            8. Charles S Shelton
                                                            9. Sarah Jane Shelton
                                                            10. Beauford Berry Shelton

Menard Maderson (Madison) Shelton  March 3, 1874 - May 14, 1949

Kiowa Cemetery, Roger Mills County, Oklahoma

m. Pearl Blue

children:          1. Otis Vernon Shelton
                        2. Sarah Anna Alice Aleeyne Shelton Kirksey
                        3. Berton Menard Shelton
                        4. Wesley McB Shelton

Menard Madison (or Maderson) Shelton was born March 3, 1874 in Cass County, Texas near Hughes Springs.  He was the son of A. M. and Sarah Blanton Shelton.  Menard's mother died when he was 4 years old and he lived with his grandparents until his father remarried a few years later.
He came to what is now Oklahoma and filed on his farm near Herring in Roger Mills County in 1900.
On December 11, 1903 he was married to Miss Pearl Blue.  They lived on their farm before moving to Elk City for two years, after which they returned to the farm and lived there until 1944, when they moved back to Elk City because of Mr. Shelton's failing health.  He was bedfast a great part from then until his death.

The following account of how Pearl met Menard was written by their daughter, Aleeyne Kirksey:
While living on the Yost homestead, Pearl had ridden a horse after buttermilk (they had moved their cattle away from the house), got down to open a gate and the horse ran off with a jug of buttermilk.  (Jack Lacey on Nine-Mile.)  Then she went to Nemire after buttermilk - there in the cellar was Menard Shelton standing in the corner of the dugout with gray pants and a dark red sweater.  Pearl went home and told her mother she had met the man she was going to marry.
Sunday at church (at Sandstone), Menard was there.  Grandma, Grandpa, Verdie, and Pearl were all there.  Grandpa forgot the chair Pearl rode in behind the spring seat and sent her (back into church) after it.  Menard carried it out and wrote that he'd be over on Sunday to talk to her.
They courted about 3 years and married December 11, 1903.  They courted by horseback.  Menard got a buggy about 6 months before they married.  Grandma (Alice) would give consent then back out, wait 2 or 3 months, etc..  Menard sent Ira Morton in the buggy with a note, "Get in the buggy - let's go get married."  Pearl refused.

Thursday, September 1, 2016

Elizabeth Causey James

birth: 1818
location: Alabama
location: Texas

father: Ezekiel Causey
mother: Elizabeth Causey

spouse: Nathan James

1850 census

1860 census

children with Nathan James:

Mary Alice James

Elizabeth James - 1860 census

1860 census
location: Eagle Lake, Colorado County, Texas
date: July 14, 1860

Elizabeth James  39  female  Alabama
John Kersey  25  male  farm laborer  Alabama
Addison Kersey  16  male  Alabama
Doe Kersey  13  male  Alabama
Elizabeth Kersey  10  female  Alabama
Alice James  1  female  Texas 1860 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Simpson M Stevens - 1940 census

1940 census
location: Bexar County, Texas

Simpson Stevens  head  male  white  52  married  Texas  mechanic dry cleaning
Leona Stevens  wife  female  white  45  married  Texas
Aubrey Anderson  lodger  male  white  24  single  Texas  pattern maker 1940 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2012.

Simp M Stevens - 1930 census

1930 census
location: San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
date: April 3, 1930

Simp M Stevens  officer  male  white  39  widowed  Texas 1930 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2002.

Simpson Stevens World War II draft card U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010.

Simp M Stevens World War I draft card U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2005.

Simpson McCune Stevens death Texas, Death Certificates, 1903-1982 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2013.

AWJ Smith World War II draft card

AWJ Smith - 1930 census

date: April 23, 1930
location: Hunter, Choctaw County, Oklahoma

Albert W J Smith  head  male  white  52  married  age @ 1st marriage 2-  Arkansas  farmer
Suda V Smith  wife  female  white  37  married  age @ 1st marriage - 15  Arkansas
Clara O Smith  daughter  female  white  15  single  Texas
William C Smith  son  white  male  10  single  Texas
Jefferson C Smith   son  male  white  8  single  Oklahoma
Virginia F Smith  daughter  female  white  3 6/12  single  Oklahoma
Albert L L Smith  son  male  white  1/12  single  Oklahoma 1930 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2002.

AWJ Smith - World War I draft card U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2005.